Dashboard TOFD / Section 3: Evaluation / Chapter 2: Basic Theory

Top-Surface Breaking

Top surface indications

Here are some of the clues that point towards a top surface-breaking indication.

  1. Lower tip diffraction. The lower tip diffraction has the same phase as the lateral wave
  2. Lateral wave. The lateral wave is either completely absent, weakened or shows a displacement
  3. Mode converted area. Often a signal can be observed in the mode converted area

Lateral wave straightening and/or lateral wave removal can help analyse the indication.